Globalization testing is a method to find out the problems in application design that could be possibly be taken to a level of globalization. Globalization testing assures you of the fact that it supports international platforms, with appropriate codes that are able to handle the changes in environment without crashing the functionality. Globalization testing tests functionality of the product in any culture/locale settings with every type of international input possible. Globalization Testing tests the functionality of the application, UI Design, Custom settings.
One of most serious globalization problem is functionality loss that some times occurs due to incorrect language conversion causing great error. So you have to put your effort on this aspect of testing as well. Globalization is done for internationalization and localization.
But Microsoft has a different categorization for internationalization and localization. Internationalization is called as the world readiness, where application is customized. Customization means simply creating specific implementation of functionalities. E.g. In any Japanese Application, the Japanese calendar is used in the place of Gregarines Calendar. This is a type of Cultural Customization according to the specific country and its related culture.
Localization is a process of developing resources for a specific culture. E.g. in Japanese Application we localize the resource files in Japanese. Localization process is complex when you do not use Pseudo Localization.
Pseudo Localization is a process where we use any different language from English (Use those languages that are easily understood by their local Tester). Due to this you can check easily that files which you localized are working properly or not. It is a better way of testing the functionality of the product in a different language. After the pseudo localization test the application can then be localize the application fully and checked for the content.